Cells and organisation
- cells as the fundamental unit of living organisms, including how to observe, interpret and record cell structure using a light microscope
- the functions of the cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, vacuole, mitochondria and chloroplasts
- the similarities and differences between plant and animal cells
- the role of diffusion in the movement of materials in and between cells
- the structural adaptations of some unicellular organisms
- the hierarchical organisation of multicellular organisms: from cells to tissues to organs to systems to organisms
The skeletal and muscular systems
- the structure and functions of the human skeleton, to include support, protection, movement and making blood cells
- biomechanics – the interaction between skeleton and muscles, including the measurement of force exerted by different muscles
- the function of muscles and examples of antagonistic muscles.
Nutrition and Digestion
- content of a healthy human diet: carbohydrates, lipids (fats and oils), proteins, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre and water, and why each is needed
- calculations of energy requirements in a healthy daily diet
- the consequences of imbalances in the diet, including obesity, starvation and deficiency diseases
- the tissues and organs of the digestive system, including adaptations to function and how the digestive system digests food (enzymes simply as biological catalysts)
- the importance of bacteria in the digestive system
- plants making carbohydrates in their leaves by photosynthesis and gaining mineral nutrients and water from the soil via their roots.
Gas Exchange Systems
- the structure and functions of the gas exchange system in humans, including adaptations to function
- the mechanism of breathing to move air in and out of the lungs, using a pressure model to explain the movement of gases, including simple measurements of lung volume
- the impact of exercise, asthma and smoking on the human gas exchange system
- the role of leaf stomata in gas exchange in plants.
- reproduction in humans (as an example of a mammal), including the structure and function of the male and female reproductive systems, menstrual cycle (without details of hormones), gametes, fertilisation, gestation and birth, to include the effect of maternal lifestyle on the foetus through the placenta
- reproduction in plants, including flower structure, wind and insect pollination, fertilisation, seed and fruit formation and dispersal, ncluding quantitative investigation of some dispersal mechanisms.
- the effects of recreational drugs (including substance misuse) on behaviour, health and life processes.